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Publicaciones de Interés

Castles, S., Ozkul, D., Cubas, M. (Eds.)

Book Cover: Social Transformation and Migration National and Local Experiences in South Korea, Turkey, Mexico and Australia

This book examines theories and specific experiences of international migration and social transformation, with special reference to the effects of neo-liberal globalization on four societies with vastly different historical and cultural characteristics: South Korea, Australia, Turkey and Mexico.

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Natalie Day and Jack Stilgoe

Book Cover: Knowledge nomads why science needs migration

The debate about highly skilled migration can be traced back over many decades. But fears about 'brain drain' are being challenged by the idea that people flow can be good for global science and innovation. In this pamphlet we identify a new, global breed of scientist: the 'knowledge nomad', exploring who they are, what motivates them and why their movement around the world is so important. Knowledge nomads are highly skilled and highly mobile people, open-minded in their choice of home and comfortable moving between different cultures. They are increasingly vital for knowledge economies. Science and innovation now function as global networks, created from the interaction of thousands of highly skilled people. The movement of these people enables these networks to grow and function. They also bring valuable knowledge and expertise home. This pamphlet looks at four case studies where knowledge nomads play a vital role – Pfizer, the UK India Business Council, the city of Manchester and the chemistry department of Imperial College London – arguing that nomads are essential for science and innovation in the UK and beyond. Scientists have always travelled in search of new collaborations, new possibilities and new ideas. We set out how the UK can recognise and build these connections, attract the best people and encourage UK-born nomads to begin their own journeys. Natalie Day and Jack Stilgoe are senior researchers at Demos.

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Edited by Andrés Solimano

Book Cover: The International Mobility of Talent Types, Causes, and Development Impact

Entrepreneurs, technical experts, professionals, international students, writers, and artists are among the most highly mobile people in the global economy today. These talented elite often originate from developing countries and migrate to industrial economies. Many return home with new ideas, experiences, and capital useful for national development, whilst others remain to produce quality goods and services that are useful everywhere in the global economy.

The economic potential of globalization is ultimately dependent on the international mobility of highly talented individuals that transfer knowledge, new technologies, ideas, business capacities, and other creative capabilities. Developing countries and advanced economies may both gain from this mobility if it is effectively and smartly managed. This volume, with original contributions from outstanding international experts in the subject, provides a novel analysis of the main determinants and development impact of talent mobility in the global economy.

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Adams, Richard H. Jr.

Book Cover: International Migration, Remittances, and the Brain Drain : A Study of 24 Labor-Exporting Countries

While the level of international migration and remittances continues to grow, data on international migration remains unreliable. At the international level, there is no consistent set of statistics on the number or skill characteristics of international migrants. At the national level, most labor-exporting countries do not collect data on their migrants. Adams tries to overcome these problems by constructing a new data set of 24 large, labor-exporting countries and using estimates of migration and educational attainment based on United States and OECD records. He uses these new data to address the key policy question: How pervasive is the brain drain from labor-exporting countries? Three basic findings emerge: With respect to legal migration, international migration involves the movement of the educated. The vast majority of migrants to both the United States and the OECD have a secondary (high school) education or higher. While migrants are well-educated, international migration does not tend to take a very high proportion of the best educated. For 22 of the 33 countries in which educational attainment data can be estimated, less than 10 percent of the best educated (tertiary-educated) population of labor-exporting countries has migrated. For a handful of labor-exporting countries, international migration does cause brain drain. For example, for the five Latin American countries (Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Jamaica and Mexico) located closest to the United States, migration takes a large share of the best educated. This finding suggests that more work needs to be done on the relationship between brain drain, geographical proximity to labor-receiving countries, and the size of the (educated) population of labor-exporting countries.

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Özden, Çağlar; Schiff, Maurice

Book Cover: International Migration, Remittances, and the Brain Drain

Knowledge of the economic effects of migration, especially its impact on economic development, is rather limited. In order to expand knowledge on migration, and identify policies and reforms that would lead to superior development outcomes, this volume presents the results of a first set of studies carried out on the subject. Current demographic trends in both developed and developing countries are pointing toward significant, potential economic gains from migration. The labor forces in many developed countries are expected to peak around 2010, and decline by around 5 percent in the following two decades, accompanied by a rapid increase in dependency ratios. Conversely, the labor forces in many developing countries are expanding rapidly, resulting in declines in dependency ratios. This imbalance is likely to create strong demand for workers in developed countries' labor markets, especially for numerous service sectors that can only be supplied locally. There are large north-south wage gaps, however, especially for unskilled and semiskilled labor. Part 1 of this book, Migration and Remittances, examines the determinants of migration, and the impact of migration and remittances on various development indicators, and measures of welfare. Among these are poverty and inequality; investments in education, health, housing and other productive activities; entrepreneurship; and child labor and education. It focuses on different source countries, use data collected via different methodologies, and employ different econometric tools. Their results, however, are surprisingly consistent. Part 2, Brain Drain, Brain Gain, Brain Waste, focuses on issues related to the migration of skilled workers, that is, the brain drain. It presents the most extensive database on bilateral skilled migration to date, and also examines a number of issues associated with the brain drain, that have not been emphasized in the literature so far, uncovers a number of interesting and unexpected patterns, and, provides answers to some of the debates. This volume deals essentially with economically motivated south-north migration, whose principal cause is, in most cases, the difference in (the present value of) expected real wages, adjusted for migration costs.

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